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Karen Bespalov
Karen Bespalov

The Themes and Influence of Being and Nothingness: An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology (PDF)


Being and Nothingness Ebook Pdf Download




Being and Nothingness is a philosophical masterpiece by Jean-Paul Sartre, the most influential existentialist thinker of the 20th century. It is a profound and challenging exploration of the nature of human existence, freedom, responsibility, and ethics. In this article, you will learn what Being and Nothingness is about, why it is important, how it has been received and influenced other fields, and how you can download it as an ebook pdf for free.




Being And Nothingness Ebook Pdf Download



The main themes of Being and Nothingness




Being and Nothingness is a complex and dense work that covers many topics, but its central theme is the question of ontology, or the study of being. Sartre uses the method of phenomenology, or the description of conscious experience, to analyze the different modes of being that humans encounter in their lives. He distinguishes between two fundamental types of being: being-in-itself and being-for-itself.


Being-in-itself and being-for-itself




Being-in-itself (être-en-soi) is the mode of being of things that exist independently of consciousness, such as objects, animals, or nature. Being-in-itself is characterized by fullness, identity, necessity, and facticity. It has no potentiality, no freedom, no choice, no meaning. It simply is what it is.


Being-for-itself (être-pour-soi) is the mode of being of human consciousness, which Sartre defines as a lack of being, a desire for being, a relation to being. Being-for-itself is characterized by emptiness, negation, possibility, and freedom. It has no essence, no fixed nature, no predetermined destiny. It is what it makes itself to be.


Nothingness and freedom




The key concept that links being-in-itself and being-for-itself is nothingness (néant). Nothingness is not a thing, but a relation that consciousness establishes with being. Consciousness introduces nothingness into the world by negating what is given in perception, by imagining what is not there, by projecting what could be there. Nothingness is the source of human creativity, but also of human anxiety.


Nothingness also implies freedom. Because consciousness is not determined by any essence or facticity, it is free to choose its own actions and values. Freedom is not a privilege or a gift, but a condition of human existence that cannot be escaped or denied. Freedom entails responsibility for oneself and for others. Freedom also entails anguish, because it means that humans have to face the uncertainty and unpredictability of their choices.


Bad faith and authenticity




One of the main challenges that humans face in their existence is how to deal with their freedom and responsibility. Sartre argues that many people try to avoid or deny their freedom by adopting a mode of being that he calls bad faith (mauvaise foi). Bad faith is a form of self-deception, a way of lying to oneself about one's own being.


Bad faith can take many forms, such as pretending to be something that one is not, or pretending not to be something that one is. For example, a person in bad faith may act as if they are determined by their social role, their emotions, their past, or their circumstances, and thus deny their freedom and responsibility. Or they may act as if they are free from any constraints or obligations, and thus deny their facticity and relation to others.


The opposite of bad faith is authenticity (authenticité), which means to acknowledge and assume one's freedom and responsibility, to act in accordance with one's own values and projects, and to respect the freedom and values of others. Authenticity is not a state of being, but a mode of existence that requires constant effort and courage. Authenticity is not a guarantee of happiness, but a condition of dignity and integrity.


The problem of the Other




Another major theme of Being and Nothingness is the relation between the self and the Other (autrui). Sartre argues that the Other is not just another being-for-itself, but a fundamental threat to the self. The Other is the source of conflict, but also of recognition.


The conflict arises from the fact that the Other can look at the self as an object, as a being-in-itself. This is what Sartre calls the look (le regard). The look reduces the self to its facticity, to its appearance, to its situation. The look alienates the self from its freedom and projects. The look makes the self feel ashamed, guilty, or inferior.


The recognition arises from the fact that the Other can also acknowledge the self as a subject, as a being-for-itself. This is what Sartre calls love (l'amour). Love affirms the self as a freedom, as a value, as a project. Love respects the self as an equal and a partner. Love makes the self feel proud, grateful, or superior.


The problem is that the look and love are incompatible and unstable. The self cannot control how the Other sees or treats it. The self cannot know what the Other thinks or feels about it. The self cannot be sure if the Other is sincere or deceitful. The self cannot escape or ignore the Other. The self needs the Other, but also fears the Other.


The reception and influence of Being and Nothingness




Being and Nothingness was published in 1943, during the German occupation of France in World War II. It was an immediate success, both critically and commercially. It established Sartre as the leading figure of existentialism in France and abroad. It also provoked controversy and debate among philosophers, critics, and readers.


Criticism from other philosophers




Being and Nothingness was criticized by many philosophers for its style, its method, its arguments, and its conclusions. Some of the most prominent critics were: - Martin Heidegger: The German philosopher who inspired Sartre with his work Being and Time (1927). Heidegger accused Sartre of misunderstanding and misusing his concepts of being-in-the-world, Dasein , authenticity, and nothingness. He also criticized Sartre for reducing being to human existence, for neglecting the historical and cultural dimensions of being, and for ignoring the question of the meaning of being. - Maurice Merleau-Ponty: The French philosopher who was Sartre's friend and colleague. Merleau-Ponty criticized Sartre for his dualism between being-in-itself and being-for-itself, for his abstraction from the concrete reality of perception and embodiment, and for his pessimism about human relations. He proposed a more nuanced and positive account of human existence in his work Phenomenology of Perception (1945). - Albert Camus: The French writer who was Sartre's ally and rival. Camus criticized Sartre for his rationalism, his voluntarism, his moralism, and his political activism. He argued that human existence is absurd , that reason cannot provide any ultimate answers or values , that freedom is limited by fate , and that rebellion is preferable to revolution . He expressed his views in his works The Myth of Sisyphus (1942) and The Rebel (1951). How to download Being and Nothingness ebook pdf for free




If you are interested in reading Being and Nothingness, you may wonder how you can download it as an ebook pdf for free. After all, buying a physical copy or a digital edition can be expensive or inconvenient. However, before you start looking for free ebooks online, you should be aware of some legal and ethical issues.


The legal and ethical issues of downloading ebooks




Downloading ebooks for free may seem like a harmless and easy way to access books that you love, but it is not always legal or ethical. Depending on the source and the format of the ebook, you may be violating the copyright laws of your country or the terms of service of the website. You may also be depriving the authors and publishers of their rightful income and recognition.


Therefore, before you download any ebook for free, you should check if it is in the public domain or if it has a Creative Commons license that allows free distribution. You should also respect the wishes of the authors and publishers who may not want their books to be shared for free. You should also avoid downloading ebooks from illegal or dubious websites that may contain malware or viruses.


The best sources for downloading ebooks




If you want to download ebooks legally and ethically, you should look for reputable and reliable sources that offer free books in various formats. Some of the best sources for downloading ebooks are: - Project Gutenberg: This is the oldest and largest digital library of free books, especially classics that are in the public domain. You can find over 60,000 books in various formats, including pdf, epub, mobi, html, and plain text. You can also browse by author, title, language, genre, or subject. - Open Library: This is a project of the Internet Archive that aims to create a web page for every book ever published. You can find over 20 million books in various formats, including pdf, epub, mobi, daisy, djvu, and plain text. You can also borrow some books through Controlled Digital Lending , which allows you to read one copy of a book at a time for 14 days. - LibriVox: This is a volunteer-run website that offers free audiobooks of public domain books. You can find over 15,000 audiobooks in various languages and genres. You can also download them as mp3 files or stream them online. - ManyBooks: This is a website that offers free ebooks from various sources, including Project Gutenberg, Open Library, Smashwords , and more. You can find over 50,000 books in various formats, including pdf, epub, mobi, html, and plain text. You can also browse by author, title, language, genre, or subject.


The steps to download Being and Nothingness ebook pdf




If you want to download Being and Nothingness ebook pdf for free, you can follow these steps: - Go to Project Gutenberg's website at https://www.gutenberg.org/ . - In the search box at the top right corner , type "Being and Nothingness" and click Go . - You will see a list of results that match your query. Click on the one that says "Being and Nothingness: An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology by Jean-Paul Sartre" . - You will see a page with information about the book , such as its author , publication date , language , and subject . Scroll down to the bottom of the page where you will see a list of download options . - Click on the one that says "PDF" . This will open a new tab with the ebook pdf file . - Right-click on the ebook pdf file and choose Save As . Choose a location on your device where you want to save the file and click Save . - Enjoy reading Being and Nothingness ebook pdf for free!


Conclusion




Being and Nothingness is a philosophical masterpiece by Jean-Paul Sartre that explores the nature of human existence , freedom , responsibility , and ethics . It is one of the most influential works of existentialism in the 20th century . It is also a challenging and complex work that requires careful reading and reflection . If you want to read Being and Nothingness as an ebook pdf for free , you can download it from Project Gutenberg's website , following the steps above . However, you should also be aware of the legal and ethical issues of downloading ebooks for free , and respect the rights and wishes of the authors and publishers . Reading Being and Nothingness can be a rewarding and enlightening experience , but it is also a responsibility and a choice .


FAQs




Here are some common questions and answers about Being and Nothingness ebook pdf download:



  • Q: Is Being and Nothingness in the public domain?



  • A: Being and Nothingness was published in 1943 in France , which means that it entered the public domain in 1994 , 50 years after the death of its author , Jean-Paul Sartre . However, the public domain status may vary depending on the country and the edition of the book . You should check the copyright laws of your country before downloading any ebook for free .



  • Q: Is there an English translation of Being and Nothingness?



  • A: Yes, there are two English translations of Being and Nothingness. The first one was done by Hazel E. Barnes in 1956 , and the second one was done by Sarah Richmond in 2018 . The Barnes translation is more widely available and used , but the Richmond translation is more recent and accurate . You can find both translations on Amazon or other online bookstores .



  • Q: How long does it take to read Being and Nothingness?



  • A: Being and Nothingness is a very long and dense book that consists of over 600 pages and over 200,000 words . The average reading speed is about 200 words per minute , which means that it would take about 16 hours to read the whole book . However, this may vary depending on your reading level , comprehension , interest , and concentration . You may also want to take breaks or notes while reading , which would increase the time needed .



  • Q: What are some other books by Jean-Paul Sartre?



  • A: Jean-Paul Sartre was a prolific writer who wrote many books on philosophy , literature , politics , and biography . Some of his most famous books are: - Nausea (1938) : A novel that depicts the existential crisis of a writer who feels disgusted by his own existence . - No Exit (1944) : A play that portrays the afterlife as a room where three characters are trapped together for eternity . - Existentialism Is a Humanism (1946) : A lecture that summarizes and defends Sartre's existentialist philosophy . - The Roads to Freedom (1945-1949) : A trilogy of novels that follows the lives of several characters during World War II and the French Resistance . - Critique of Dialectical Reason (1960) : A philosophical work that attempts to reconcile existentialism with Marxism . - The Words (1964) : An autobiography that recounts Sartre's childhood and early development as a writer .



  • Q: Where can I find more information about Being and Nothingness?



  • A: If you want to learn more about Being and Nothingness, you can check out these resources: - SparkNotes: Being and Nothingness : A website that provides a summary, analysis, themes, quotes, and study questions for Being and Nothingness. - Wikipedia: Being and Nothingness : A website that provides an overview, background, structure, content, reception, criticism, and influence of Being and Nothingness. - YouTube: Being and Nothingness by Jean-Paul Sartre : A video that explains the main concepts and arguments of Being and Nothingness.



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