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Karen Bespalov
Karen Bespalov

Day Dreams |LINK|


There are many types of daydreams, and there is no consistent definition among psychologists. However, the characteristic that is common to all forms of daydreaming meets the criteria for mild dissociation.[3] Also, the impacts of different types of daydreams are not identical. While some are disruptive and deleterious, others may be beneficial in some way.[4]




Day Dreams



Creative thinking is another function of daydreaming associated with increased creativity.[6] The frequency of daydreaming is the highest during undemanding and easy tasks.[7] It is hypothesized that daydreaming plays an important role in generating creative problem-solving processes.[4] Studies have also found that intentional daydreaming is more effective when focused on creative thought processing, rather than spontaneous or disruptive daydreams.[5]


Daydreaming can also be used to imagine social situations. Humans are naturally oriented to be social in behavior and actively seek the approval and company of others. Social daydreaming is imagining past social occurrences and future events and conversations.[9] According to research, daydreaming and social cognition have strong overlapping similarities when activated portions of the brain are observed.[10][11] These findings indicate that daydreaming is an extension of the brain's experience of social cognition. This is likely because daydreams are often focused on the mental representations of social events, experiences, and people. It was also observed that a large portion of implicitly occurring daydreams, approximately 71%, were social.[12] According to recent research, it was also found that positive rumination caused increases in the imagining of positive future events. Negative rumination caused an increase in thoughts of negative future events in depressed individuals but did not cause a significant increase in thoughts of negative future events in those who were not depressed.[13]


Freudian psychology interpreted daydreaming as expression of the repressed instincts similarly to those revealing themselves in nighttime dreams. He pointed out that, in contrast to nighttime dreams, there seems to be a process of "secondary revision" in fantasies that makes them more lucid, like daydreaming. The state of daydreaming is a kind of liminal state between waking (with the ability to think rationally and logically) and sleeping.[18]


In the late 1960s, cognitive psychologists Jerome L. Singer of Yale University and John S. Antrobus of the City College of New York, created a daydream questionnaire, called the Imaginal Processes Inventory (IPI). It has been used to investigate daydreams. Psychologists Leonard Giambra and George Huba used the IPI and found that daydreamers' imaginary images vary in three ways: how vivid or enjoyable the daydreams are, how many guilt- or fear-filled daydreams they have, and how "deeply" into the daydream people go.[3]


Eric Klinger's research in the 1980s showed that most daydreams are about ordinary, everyday events and help to remind us of mundane tasks. Klinger's research also showed that over 75% of workers in "boring jobs", such as lifeguards and truck drivers, use vivid daydreams to "ease the boredom" of their routine tasks.[3]


In the late 19th century, Toni Nelson argued that some daydreams with grandiose fantasies are self-gratifying attempts at "wish fulfillment". In the 1950s, some educational psychologists warned parents not to let their children daydream, for fear that the children may be sucked into "neurosis and even psychosis".[3]


While the cost of daydreaming is more thoroughly discussed, the associated benefit is understudied. One potential reason is the payoff of daydreaming is usually private and hidden compared to the measurable cost from external goal-directed tasks. It is hard to know and record people's private thoughts such as personal goals and dreams, so whether daydreaming supports these thoughts is difficult to discuss.[2]


Dreams may contribute to psychological adaptation by aiding in mood regulation. One way it could be achieved is through a desensitization process whereby negative events are replayed within the dream under lower conditions of negative emotionality. Evidence of this theory is supported by the tendency of dreamers to evaluate their emotions felt in their dreams more positively compared to an independent judge (i.e., positivity bias). Additionally, it has been observed that while dream emotions are typically more negative than pre-sleep emotions, morning emotions are more positive, suggesting that emotional regulation occurs overnight and may help improve mood in the morning. The present study aimed to examine the relationships between pre-sleep, dream, and morning mood and the potential desensitization function of remembered dreams as indicated by their effects on morning mood and stress. Methodology: Participants (N = 188; Mean age = 19.2, SD = 3.0) recorded their dreams (N = 345 dreams) and self-reported their stress and mood at bedtime, during their dream retrospectively, and upon waking. A judge also evaluated the subjects' dream moods. Subjects' positivity bias was defined as the difference between the subjects and the judge's evaluation of the positive emotions in the dream. Results: A MANOVA revealed that subjects perceived a higher level of positive emotions in their dreams compared to a judge. Multi-group path analysis revealed that some relationships between pre-sleep, dream, and morning emotions and stress differed in positive and negative dream nights. In both groups, the strongest predictors of morning mood and stress were pre-sleep mood and stress, respectively. The second strongest predictor of positive morning mood was the subjects' dream positivity bias. Conclusion: Results provide some support for the association of dreaming in mood regulation attributable to REM sleep. They also highlight that pathways implicated in mood regulation may be distinct from stress regulation.


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Daydreams was shot and edited during the winter of 1974-75 by North Shore resident, Craig Beck. Thirty years later it remains the last, un-forked pea on the plate of American ski-film making--a rare inspiration. "My basic idea was a fantasy type of film," recalls self-taught filmmaker Beck, 58, who lives in Cedar Flat on the North Shore. "I wrote it somewhat like a symphony with an introduction, the hills and valleys, and the climax. I didn't want a lot of narration like other ski movies have--no build up of bull. So I set the film to original music plus some which I bought from Pink Floyd."Big AirWhether it's skiing the steepest of the steep on "Idiot's" at Alpine Meadows, hang gliding the California coast, carving rowdy lines in the Canadian Bugaboos, or watching Craig's younger brother Greg uncork a then-record 100 feet of air off Palisades Tahoe's Palisades, Daydreams stirs the soul and piques the psyche into an almost paranormal validation of freedom. Scenes swell and crash like teen-age mood swings."The big jump is still something that blows me away," admits Beck who moved to Tahoe with his family in 1960. "I'm still actively filmmaking and I've been privileged to work with today's finest skiers and boarders. However, those guys, back then, defined big air. Greg's jump is truly incredible. We measured it and it was over 100 feet. The damn jump, though a perfect landing, knocked my brother out cold," recalls Craig Beck.Although Greg's launch into the air is the film's biggest left hook to viewers' jaws, the film follows on with other ecstatic jumps that cross over into Oz. One has to remember that skiing was just growing out of the Jet stick and Bear Cat binding era into new technology. Most of the film's skiers, which included Chris Von Der Ahe, Brady Keresy, Pecos Welch, Earl Downing, and Tuck Rivard, skied on rudimentary equipment in blue jeans and wool shirts. That's what makes some of the jumps--such as the back flip by the late David Burnham off the Palisades into 80 feet of air--even more remarkable. Mark Rivard was the only one to get hurt. Near the end of filming he broke both ankles jumping off the Palisades. "I was really upset when Mark hurt himself," admits Craig, who began his journalistic career as a messenger for AP during the Palisades Tahoe Olympics. "Mark was the best and most beautiful jumper. Up until then we'd been filming without any type of injury. But his injuries didn't stop anybody. The next day David did his flip off the Palisades, an incredible feat."ProductionWhat's more remarkable than the skiing was the film's production. Beck's previous experience up till then had been only a Super-8 ski movie set to music called "Timepiece," and a 16-millimeter short he'd filmed for Hans Gmouver in the Bugaboos. Daydreams cost $100,000 to make. Taking out loans to cover costs, Beck did practically everything himself in Orson Wells-like fashion. Beck designed new camera mountings on the wing tips of gliders and inventing unusual dissolve transitions. He was the film's cameraman and he filmed sequences with a beat up, Bell and Howell and Aeroflex cameras. He edited the footage in his own house using a crude A and B roll editing process. He even mastered the original soundtrack (along with Steve Connelley, Blair Pretz, and Ann Vieille). He estimates it took 100 days of filming and 15,000 feet of film to get what he wanted."I finished editing the film the night before it was supposed to premiere at the Cobblestone in Tahoe City," Beck remembers. "I also finished it flat broke and exhausted. I'd been working sometimes for days on end without sleep to get it done. I was obsessed."On the CircuitAudiences loved it, but distributing the film became a Titanic problem, partially due to Beck's lack of money and marketing experience."Whenever it showed I had success. I mean we outsold "Jaws" that same year at the Cobblestone. I booked it from Redding to Santa Cruz, mostly at colleges. In Monterey I flew up and down the community all day in my hang glider to promote the showing. I even flew off the Civic Auditorium in Redding," says Beck who once held the World Hang Gliding Altitude Gain Record at over 20,000 feet. "Then I went to L.A. and just burnt out. I was emotionally drained and all the traveling wasn't helping my marriage. When Dave Burnham died in a motorcycle accident, I was so bummed I shelved it (the film) and I went back to carpentry as a living."At TahoeThrough the years Beck has worked on other films including "Ski Extreme." While writing a screenplay for a feature-length movie about the life of Snowshoe Thompson, Beck became heavily involved in resurrecting the historic ski discipline of longboard racing. He formed the National Longboard Association in 1994."I still love to make films," says Beck. "A primary passion for me is shooting pictures and putting them together. Daydreams remains very special. When I made my movie ski films were a weak market. Today it's quite another story. Daydreams remains very current in today's big mountain skiing. I'm still surprised by its recognition and the enthusiasm for it by the best skierstoday. They like it." 041b061a72


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